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Animal Alternatives Information  

UC Center for Animal Alternatives, 1991-2006.
UC Davis Center for Animal Alternatives Information, 2006-2016.
Last Updated: Jun 2, 2017 URL: http://guides.lib.ucdavis.edu/animalalternatives Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

Animal Care and Use Print Page

Information Resources for Animal Care and Use Committees

Alternatives Search Resources

The federal Animal Welfare Act requires that local institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review certain local research protocols involving the use of animals. To assure a broad review, IACUCs include local members outside the animal care and research communities. As a result, IACUCs and research support staff become involved in the education of these members, their incorporation into committee problem solving, and in ethical decision making. This guide is intended to provide a brief list of resources on the functions and administration of institutional animal care and use committees, including these three areas. We invite your suggestions for additions and changes to this information guide.

UCDavis Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee



Research Compliance and Integrity - UC Davis
A year-long program of brown bag lecture-discussion sessions jointly sponsored by the Office of Research and the Office of Graduate Studies. The objective is to provide researchers and students with information, training, and tools to address the increasingly complex issues that they will confront during their research careers. These sessions will be taught and facilitated by members of the faculty and administration, and guest speakers with particular knowledge and expertise of the RCR topics.
Training Classes - UC Davis
Training resources related to animal use & care, including classes, safetynets, and videos.
Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine
Among colleges & universities, many offer training in animal care and handling either as part of staff training or as part of the regular curriculum. An outstanding example is the training offered at Utrecht for all young scientists. Offered at the graduate level, it provides information not only on the proper design of animal experiments, but also covers alternatives, animal welfare issues, and ethical aspects of animal experimentation. This international course on laboratory animal science is offered to non-residents as well.
AALAS Learning Library
Animal Care and Use in Research and Education. Provides training essential for technicians, veterinarians, managers, IACUC members, and investigators working with animals in research or education. Emphasizes appropriate handling, care, and use of animals.
Lab Animal Welfare Training Exchange (LAWTE)
Founded in 1994, LAWTE seeks to promote the exchange of training ideas and program strategies among research and training institutions for the purpose of improving the training programs. It focuses on training the research investigator, student, and iacuc member.
Laboratory Animal Training Association (LATA)
LATA is dedicated to producing training and CE materials on the humane care and use of research animals. The Institutional Training Program (ITP) is designed to provide documentation of compliance with federal regulations on training personnel. ITP consists of videos and software which address specific issues and topics. Participating institutions receive all video modules and updates as produced. Video sets are in modular format with interactive computer software designed to document the training, along with certificates of completion .

Information Resources for Animal Care and Use Committees


What animals want : expertise and advocacy in laboratory animal welfare policy
Carbone, Larry. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2004.
Carlson Health Sci Library W20.55 A5 C27 2004
The human use of animals : case studies in ethical choice
New York : Oxford University Press, 1998.
Carlson Health Sci Library W20.55 A5 H86 1998
Responsibility in the use of animals in bioscience research : Expectations of the major research council and charitable funding bodies
NC3Rs, BBSRC, MRC, NERC and Wellcome Trust.
Sourcebook of models for biomedical research
Totowa, N.J. : Humana Press, c2008.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY58 S724 2008
Laboratory animals in research and teaching : ethics, care, and methods
Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, c2005.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 L276 2005
The ethics of research involving animals
London : Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2005.
The design of animal experiments : reducing the use of animals in research through better experimental design
London : Royal Society of Medicine, c2002.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 L22 no.14 2002
Animal training: a review and commentary on current practice
Proceedings of a symposium / organized by Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, held at the Peterhouse Theatre, University of Cambridge, 26th-27th September 1989.
Potters Bar, Herts, Eng. : Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, c1990.
Carlson Health Sci Library GV1829 A54 1990 Regular Loan
Education and training in the care and use of laboratory animals : A guide for developing institutional programs
Committee on Educational Programs in Laboratory Animal Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1991.
The care and feeding of an IACUC : the organization and management of an institutional animal care and use committee
Boca Raton : CRC Press, c1999.
Shields Library HV4708 C35 1999 Regular Loan
"FELASA recommendations on the education and training of persons working with laboratory animals: categories A and C;
Reports of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Association's Working Group on Education accepted by the FELASA Board of Management."
Laboratory Animals. 1995; 29:121-31 (FELASA Guidelines)
Guidelines on the handling and training of laboratory animals
prepared by the Biological Council Animal Research and Welfare Panel. Potters Bar. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 1992.
Carlson Health Sci Library SF406 G4 1992 Regular Loan
The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, 7th edition. Editor T B Poole.
Two volumes, Volume 1 Terrestial vertebrates, Volume 2 Amphibious and aquatic vertebrates and advanced invertebrates. Blackwell Science 1999.
Carlson Health Sci Library QY50 U5 1999 Regular Loan


Searching Resources

Free Public Databases from NLM and NAL

Educational Alternatives Databases

Additional Information and Resources

Alternatives Search Guidelines (Complying with USDA Policies 11 and 12)

see also Alternatives Worksheet

Literature Search

A minimum of two database searches that reflects a serious effort to address the "3Rs" (refinement, replacement, reduction) is required by federal law. It is also important to show that the proposed use of animals is not unnecessarily duplicative of other studies previously performed.

The 3Rs are:

  • Refinement of technique to reduce or eliminate unnecessary pain and distress an animal may experience.
  • Reduction, which refers to an effort to reduce the number of animals used overall within the study.
  • Replacement refers to replacing animals with non-animal alternatives, non-mammalian or invertebrate species.  Alternatives could include in vitro methods that utilize organ, tissue and cell culture, computer simulation models, microorganisms, plants, or chemical techniques.
Result of Search for Alternatives

Indicate the results of this search for alternatives, and whether you were able to identify alternatives that are included in the studies proposed. If no alternatives have been found, and if no prior studies have been performed that indicate duplication, then state this within the framework of the objectives of the study. It is important to state the unique aspects of your study in relation to the published literature. Please also include any procedures you have performed that indicate your efforts to decrease the use of animals. This could include in vitro studies or those performed with invertebrate or non-mammalian species. This helps document your efforts toward employing the concepts of the 3Rs.


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